From: R.K.Autar@massey.ac.nz (Raman Autar)
Subject: Re: Shared physical custody
Date: Sat, 22 Feb 1997 06:30:06 +0000
Here is a list of research references Re: Shared Custody.
Hope it is helpful
Luepnitz studied single parent custody and joint custody. Most single parent children were dissatisfied with the amount of visitation they had, whereas the children of joint custody arrangements seemed reasonably happy with their exposure to both their parents. The quality of the parent-child relationship was determined to be better for joint custody. (The ncp-child relationship is described as more like an aunt or uncle - child relationship.)
Nunan compared 20 joint custody children (ages 7-11) with 20 age-matched children in sole maternal custody. All families were at least two years after separation or divorce. Joint custody children were found to have higher ego strengths, superego strengths and self-esteem than the single custody children. The joint custody children were also found to be less excitable and less impatient than their sole custody counterparts. For children under four at the time of separation the differences were very small.
Welsh-Osga compared children in intact families with joint custody and single custody families. Age range 4 1/2 to 10 years old. Children from joint custody were found to be more satisfied with the time spent with both parents. Parents in joint custody were found to be more involved with their children. (Joint custody parents found to be less overburdened by parenting responsibilities than sole custody parents.) Children from all four groups (intact families, sole maternal, sole paternal, joint custody) were found to be equally well adjusted by their various standardized measures.
Cowan compared 20 joint custody and 20 sole (maternal) custody families. Children in joint physical custody were rated as better adjusted by their mothers compared with children of sole custody mothers. The children`s perceptions in sole custody situations correlated with the amount of time spent with their father. The more time children from sole maternal custody spent with their fathers, the more accepting both parents were perceived to be, and the more well-adjusted were the children.
Pojman compared children in the age range 5 to 13 years old. Boys in joint custody were significantly better adjusted than boys in sole maternal custody. Comparing boys in all groups, boys in joint custody compared very similarly to boys from happy families.
Age range of children 5 to 12 years, studying early period of separation or divorce. Boys and girls in sole custody situation had more negative involvement with their parents than in joint custody situation. There was in increase reported in sibling rivalry reported for sole custody children when visiting their father (ncp). Girls in joint custody reported to have significantly higher self-esteem than girls in sole custody.
Children in joint custody situations were found to be better adjusted than children in sole custody situations.
Long-term effects were studied in joint custody, sole maternal custody and intact families. Children in joint custody families were found to be more active than in sole custody families or intact families. In low conflict situations children did better (demonstrated less withdrawal) than in either sole custody or intact families.
The thesis compares 20 boys in joint custody with 20 matched boys in sole maternal custody. A number of tests were used. Boys from a joint custody environment were found to be better adjusted than boys from a sole custody environment.
90 fathers were questioned regarding how unequal recognition of parental rights might encourage conflict. Joint legal custody was found to encourage parental cooperation and dis-courage self-interest. Sole custody in both custodial AND non-custodial status encouraged punishment-oriented persuasion strategies. Unequal custody power was perceived as inhibiting parental cooperation by both parents.
Both sole and joint custody children adjusted well to the remarriage of their parent; no significant difference found between the groups. The parents of joint custody situations, however, expressed more satisfaction with their children and indicated that they appreciated the time alone with their new spouse. Sole custody children also reported seeing their father less often after remarriage of the mother; this did not happen in joint custody situations.
Parents in sole custodial homes (both maternal and paternal) were perceived as using psychological pressure techniques to control children. e.g. inducing guilt. However, in joint custody homes, the perception of the children was that such techniques were seldom used. No difference in self-concept was detectable among the different homes. Children`s ages 9-12 years. 15 joint, 15 maternal sole, 15 paternal sole.
Joint custody children more satisfied than sole custody children.
21 joint custody and 21 sole custody families compared. Mothers in joint custody found in better mental health. Mothers with sole custody sons had the least amount of social support and mothers with joint custody of sons had the most. Joint custody mothers reported best child-parent problem solving of all.
Child support compared among sole custody and joint custody. Joint custody shown to produce much better compliance in child support payments to the mother.
This paper presents joint custody for young children in a negative light.
This study compares children from five groups: joint physical custody, joint-legal maternal-physical, joint-legal paternal-physcial, sole maternal and sole paternal custody. On their measurement of how children perceive the importance of family members, sole custody children were three times mores likely to omit one parent than joint custody situations.
Williams studied high-conflict, high-risk situations. He found that children in sole custody (typically but not exclusively maternal) much more likely to be subject to parental kidnapping and/or physical harm. He found that high-conflict families do better and are more likely to learn cooperative behavior when given highly detailed orders from the judge.
Mothers with joint custody were found to be more satisfied, when compared with mothers in sole custody situation.
Interviews with boys as well as with both parents. Age group 6-11. Found boys from joint custody families better adjusted than comparison group of boys from sole maternal custody families.
This work finds that in non-conflicted joint and sole custody families there is little measurable difference between a child`s behavior in sole or joint custody.
Visitation found to be a most significant factor in enabling children to maintain pre-divorce academic standards.
Regular visitation shown to be significant in a number of factors explaining postive adjustment patterns.
Address for obtaining theses: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. 1 (800) 521-3042.
Raman K Autar
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